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For education, dialogue and solidarity between refugees and other citizens of the world

Above photograph appears courtesy of Gideon Mendel. All other photos and text appear courtesy of the photographers and Mendel.

Many thanks to Samina Rana for the ‘Displaces’ project title

UEL-Stratford Circus, site of the OLIve Displaces photo workshops

Displaces is a project tutored by Gideon Mendel and Crispin Hughes, and supported by the Centre for Narrative Research at UEL, with ongoing help from Natalie Ludvigsen and Marie Godin. It features the images and writing of ‘Jungle’ camp residents, and later, photo-workshop attenders at the OLIve weekend course at UEL.

Displaces in Calais

In the initial steps of the ‘Displaces’ project, part of the ‘University for all’ initiative and of UEL’s Life Stories courses at Calais, supported by UEL’s Impact Fund grant to the Centre for Narrative Research for ‘multimodal narratives’ work,and by Psychosocial Studies teaching development funds, photographers Gideon Mendel and Crispin Hughes worked with residents of the Calais refugee camp to create visual records of their lives, particularly their lives in the camp, from their own point of view.

Many participants used their photographic work as the basis for written assignments for the Life Stories course. The photos and written pieces also formed the basis for many contributions to the ‘Voices from the ‘Jungle” coauthored book published by Pluto Press in 2017 (See the University for All – Life Stories page).

This work was exhibited in various fora during 2016, including at UEL’s Civic Engagement Eestival, at the Barbican, in the East End Film Festival, at the annual Oral History Society conference and at Refugee Tales opening forum. The work was also shown during many events surrounding the launch of ‘Voices from the ‘Jungle” in 2017.

Here is a selection of work from theDisplaces Calais -Starting Out project, all made by camp resident photographers: Wilde Bandits Shorts One Teaspoon Comfortable Cheap Price Cheap Footaction Really nMrfymAd
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(powerpoint) …and here is a selection from the pilot and the later more extensive workshops: Displaces examples2

Displaces in London

In the second phase of the Displaces project, during UEL’s OLIve weekend open learning course for people from refugee backgrounds, starting in spring 2017, Crispin Hughes has continued giving photo workshops, which have led to a new body of photographic work on living in London ‘Beautiful swarm’, from workshop participants. This work has also led a number of participants to produce ‘Life Stories’ short course assignments. The work will be exhibited in autumn 2017. The Displaces blog showcases much of this material: Displaces – images and writing from the OLIve photo workshops.

NetLogo 6.0.4 User Manual

This tutorial leads you through the process of building a complete model, built up in stages, with every step explained along the way.

Agents and procedures

In Tutorial #2, you learned how to use the command center and agent monitors to inspect and modify agents and make them do things. Now you’re ready to learn about the real heart of a NetLogo model: the Code tab.

You’ve seen that agents in NetLogo are divided into patches, turtles, links, and the observer. Patches are stationary and arranged in a grid. Turtles move over that grid. Links connect two turtles. The observer oversees everything that’s going on and does whatever the turtles, patches and links can’t do for themselves.

All four types of agents can run NetLogo commands. All four can also run “procedures”. A procedure combines a series of NetLogo commands into a single new command that you define.

You will now learn to write procedures that make turtles move, eat, reproduce, and die. You will also learn how to make monitors, sliders, and plots. The model we’ll build is a simple ecosystem model not unlike Wolf Sheep Predation from Tutorial #1.

To start a new model, select “New” from the File menu. Then begin by creating a setup button:

Now you have a setup button. Pressing the button runs a procedure called “setup”. A procedure is a sequence of NetLogo commands that we assign a new name. We’ll define that procedure soon, but we haven’t yet. The button refers to a procedure that doesn’t exist, so the button turns red:

If you want to see the actual error message, click the button.

Now we’ll create the “setup” procedure, so the error message will go away:

When you’re done, the Code tab looks like this:

Note that some lines are indented. Most people find it helpful to indent their code. It isn’t mandatory, but it makes the code easier to read and change.

Your procedure begins with Printed Round Neck Long Sleeve Top ivory mix Marks and Spencer Buy Online Outlet Cost Sale Online U9Rfb
and ends with end . Every procedure begins and ends with these words.

Let’s look at what you typed in and see what each line of your procedure does:

When you’re done typing, switch to the Interface tab and press the setup button you made before. You will see the turtles scattered around the world:

Press setup a couple more times, and see how the arrangement of turtles is different each time. Note that some turtles may be right on top of each other.

Think a bit about what you needed to do to make this happen. You needed to make a button in the interface and make a procedure that the button uses. The button only worked once you completed both of these separate steps. In the remainder of this tutorial, you will often have to complete two or more similar steps to add another feature to the model. If something doesn’t appear to work after you completed what you thought is the final step for that new feature, continue to read ahead to see if there is still more to do. After reading ahead for a couple of paragraphs, you should then go back over the directions to see if there is any step you might have missed.

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in , Ruby Exception Handling

Today as we continue our journey through the wide world of Ruby Exception Handling , we’re going to examine theInterruptexception class.Interruptis a subclass descendant of theExceptionsuperclass, and occurs when a specific interrupt signal is received by the active Ruby process, such as when the user manually halts viaCtrl-C.

Ruby Exception Handling

In this article we’ll examine theInterruptclass in a bit more detail, looking at where it sits within Ruby’sExceptionclass hierarchy, how to handleInterrupterrors, and a few tips for avoidInterruptsexceptions entirely. Let’s get to work!

SinceInterruptis a descendant of theSignalExceptionclass, it should come as no surprise thatInterruptis just a response to a specific signal being sent to the active process, and caught by Ruby. Let’s briefly discuss signals to get a refresher on what they are and how they work.

Asignalis a command that can be sent directly to a running process within many operating systems. Typically, a specific signal will be a short string identifier, each with a unique purpose or intended behavior. For example, theTERMsignal is short forterminationand is intended to terminate the running process it is sent to:Process.kill(‘TERM’,

If you’re unsure of what signals are available to your system, simply call theSignal.listmethod in Ruby for a complete list.

Now in most cases, theInterruptexception will be raised via a manual interruption command, when the user pressesCtrl-Cto halt the active process. This can be seen in practice with the simple example below:

We’ve created an indefinite loop which pauses every second and outputs the current iteration of ourcountvalue. Obviously this would eventually cause a crash if execution was never halted, but for our purposes it works well enough to give us an active process we can manually kill.

After executing and seeing the output number climb for a few seconds, pressCtrl-Cand we see our expectedInterruptexception was raised and rescued:

Additionally, sinceInterruptdescends from theSignalExceptionclass, we can remove our explicitrescueclause forInterruptand just rescue anySignalException, which will also catch our manual interrupt in the same way:

The output:

While manual interruption is useful, it’s important to recognize that the commonCtrl-Ccommand to manually interrupt the active process is really just a shortcut way of sending theINTsignal to that process, telling it to interrupt.

Therefore, just as with theTERMsignal or many others, we can programmatically send theINTsignal to our active process through Ruby code itself and raise anInterruptexception in much the same way as before. Here we’re using the same loop, but once thecountreaches5, we send ourINTsignal:

2. I agree that when your model changes, your standard error can change, so the conclusions will depend on context.

So, yes, my factor of 16 is just for one particular set of assumptions.

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Hi Andrew,

What do you base 1) above on though? I’ve asked people and they don’t seem to think there’s any a priori reason to assume an interaction will be half the size of a main effect.

Otherwise your claim seems to reduce to smaller effects = less power, which isn’t surprising.

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It’s not just that smaller effects have less power. That’s one of the factors of 4. The other factor of 4 is that the estimate of the interaction is a difference in differences, which will have twice the standard error (thus 4 times the variance) of the estimate of the main effect.

Regarding your question about a priori reasons: I guess it depends on the application. It makes sense to me that large interactions could be as large as the main effect or even larger (for example, if the main effect is 0.6 and the effect is 0 for women and 1.2 for men, then the interaction is twice the size of the main effect!); I’d guess that typical interactions are of the order of half the size of the main effect. A lot depends on whether you’re going in looking for one particular interaction, or if you’re rooting around looking for what interactions might turn up.

Reply to this comment
March 15, 2018 at 6:29 pm

Thanks for your reply Andrew.

(X11 – X12) – (X21 – X22) = (X11 + X22) – (X12 + X22)

If you code your interaction this way, it’ll be twice the size and have twice the SE as a main effect (coded as the difference between the marginal means). If you divide it by 2 it’ll be exactly the same. So, (X11 + X22)/2 – (X12 + X22)/2 looks a lot like (X11 + X12)/2 – (X21 + X22)/2

So, maybe if you start off by assuming that the difference of differences (interaction) should be the same size as the difference in marginal means (main effect), you can arrive at the conclusion that the SE should be twice as large. But that’s just another way of saying you expect the interaction to be small.

Reply to this comment
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I played around in R to get a sense of how the standard errors depend on the parameterization.

Reply to this comment
March 15, 2018 at 3:27 pm

Thx! The [-1 1] case seems most reasonable given that ANOVA computes differences. Linear modeling examples you present above show that SE depends (partly) on the relative norm of the predictor vectors. Using a norm of 1 everywhere leads to both the main effect and interaction predictors to also be of unit length, and thus all SEs are the same. Makes all numbers more comparable…

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On the evening of December 1st, 1981, a 40 year oldrealtor named Virginia Freeman received a call from a man who was interested in purchasing a property listed on the...

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